Archive for February, 2011
Scientists have discovered a new function of insulin in the brain.
Researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine have found that impaired insulin action in the brain may be the result of unbridled lipolysis trigger and exacerbate type 2 diabetes in humans.
Conducted by Christoph Buettner, assistant professor of medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Mount Sinai School of Medicine, the research team first injected a small amount of insulin in the brain of rats and then assessed glucose metabolism lipids in the body. In doing so, found that brain insulin suppresses lipolysis, a process in which triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and fatty acids are released.
Furthermore, in mice that lacked the brain insulin receptor, lipolysis was unrestrained. While fatty acids are important energy sources during fasting, they can worsen diabetes, especially when they are released after the person has eaten, as happens in people with diabetes. Researchers previously believed that insulin’s ability to suppress lipolysis was entirely mediated through insulin receptors expressed on adipocytes, or fat tissue cells.
“The major lipolysis-inducing pathway in our bodies is the sympathetic nervous system and here the studies showed that brain insulin reduces sympathetic nervous system activity in fat tissue. In patients who are obese or have diabetes, insulin fails to inhibit lipolysis and fatty acid levels are increased. The low-grade inflammation throughout the body’s tissue that is commonly present in these conditions is believed to be mainly a consequence of these increased fatty acid levels.”
Buettner added, “When brain insulin function is impaired, the release of fatty acids is increased. This induces inflammation, which can further worsen insulin resistance, the core defect in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, impaired brain insulin signaling can start a vicious cycle since inflammation can impair brain insulin signaling.
“This cycle has been preserved and can lead to type 2 diabetes. Our study raises the possibility that the increase in insulin signaling in the brain may have therapeutic benefit of the lower risk of complications of insulin therapy, which is the ‘ hypoglycemia. ”
Each year 1.6 million people over 20 have been diagnosed with diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. The disease is becoming one of the most serious health problems of our time in nearly 24 million people affected – it is 7.8 percent of the U.S. population, or about the status of the population of Texas.
The disease has no cure and requires changes in lifestyle and ongoing support important, but people with diabetes can still effectively manage the disease as well as full and active a life as possible. To provide ongoing support to help patients with diabetes achieve their personal goals, the global diabetes care Novo Nordisk has launched a line of integrated, highly customizable support for people living with diabetes. The program, called Cornerstones4Care offers tools that fit the lifestyle of an individual and information needs. Patients can log on towww.Cornerstones4Care.com to see if they qualify for an attempt to save money on Novo Nordisk insulin products.
“Whether newly diagnosed or living with diabetes for years, people need continual support to help keep their diabetes management on track,” says Camille Lee, vice president of diabetes marketing. “Not everyone needs the same information, so we developed Cornerstones4Care to offer customized information based on personal preferences.”
Cornerstones4Care is a one-stop source to learn about diabetes and innovative Novo Nordisk treatment options and delivery device systems. People can also receive recipes, look up food nutritional values, connect with others and even receive daily action plans. The program focuses on four “cornerstones” of diabetes control – checking blood sugar, eating healthy, engaging in physical activity and taking diabetes medicines.
For example, different healthy eating tips are offered to someone who indicates they like to cook at home versus eat out in restaurants. A unique feature like the Menu Planner allows members to create their own menu of diabetes-friendly dishes, then generates a grocery list based on the options so that smart, healthy food choices can be made.
“Even if diabetes is a chronic disease can be controlled,” says Rudy Moyado Portage, Indiana, who was living with type 2 diabetes for over 15 years. “If you can find the motivation and adequate support, there is much you can do to help. There are no shortcuts. You have to work, but when you are in control, is very rewarding.”
To help people with diabetes is easier to control the disease, including online resource Cornerstones4Care:
* Basics of drugs for diabetes: An overview of the disease and its treatment of information based on four “pillars” of the fight against diabetes.
* Cornerstone of care: plans based on measuring blood sugar control, healthy eating and physical activity.
* Beyond the Basics: Strategies for specific situations such as travel or resolve any roadblocks in the management of the disease.
* Menu Planner: Tools to create a menu for a wide range of diabetes-friendly recipes.
While the best remedy to prevent type 2 diabetes – eating right and exercising – may be relatively simple, is something that many people have a bad time to do so. For this reason, a team of researchers at New York-Presbyterian Hospital is planning to test the effectiveness of bariatric surgery to treat the symptoms of diabetes in overweight but not obese.
Previous studies have shown that bariatric surgery is an effective way to treat diabetes, a person is seriously overweight. These patients have a BMI of 35 or more. Much less is known about the effects of this intervention, people with type 2 diabetes, but is more moderate BMI.
The group plans on testing the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in diabetes patients who have a BMI between 26 and 35. This would put them in the overweight or mildly obese categories. The researchers said that they hope the surgery will provide similar results in these patients as it does for the severely obese. These benefits include improved blood sugar control, reduced medication need and lowered risk of diabetes-related death.
“It ‘s prima facie evidence that these results can be obtained in overweight or mildly obese patients, said Dr. Francesco Rubino, who will conduct the investigation.” We need rigorous, comparative clinical trials such as this, to better understand when to give priority to the surgery and when to recommend a traditional therapy. ”
In addition to improving the symptoms of diabetes surgery, Rubino said he hoped that the investigation reveals more than the BMI criteria for deciding which patients need bariatric surgery. Demonstrate that the procedure may be useful to those with lower BMI; the search fails to convince insurance companies to cover more than one person.
Although diabetes is threatening the lives of countless children and adults across the country, few people know that the disease also affects animals, especially dogs and cats. Certified veterinary technician Randi E. Golub has written a new guide to inform people about the treatment of patients of animals. In “Sugar Babies: instructions to make sure your pet for Diabetes” (ISBN 1452808120), the author teaches pet therapy to improve their lives.
“Sugarbabes” offers a wealth of information and practice of holistic pet guardians. According to Alex, his cat has been diagnosed with diabetes in 1999, Golub quickly began a fascinating learning experience that allowed him to live a happier and healthier life. Therefore, this book contains information on the signs of diabetes in cats and dogs and how to control and balance the treatments through diet and exercise.
An educated pet guardian is a responsible pet guardian, and Golub equips them with valuable information to effectively communicate with their veterinarian and provide better care for their beloved pet or any pet in their care.
“Sugar Babes” offers a wealth of information and practice holistic pet guardians. According to Alex, his cat has been diagnosed with diabetes in 1999, Golub quickly began a fascinating learning experience that allowed him to live a happier, healthier life. Therefore, this book provides information on the signs of diabetes in cats and dogs and how to control and balance the treatments through diet and exercise.
Driven by growth in the biopharmaceuticals segment, Biocon on Thursday posted a rise of about 25% of net profit to Rs100.75 crore for the quarter ended Dec. 31.
Commenting on the financial results, Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, chairman and CEO, said the performance reflects the growth marks an important step that will allow the company to invest in the promotion of research and expand partnerships for manufacturing and marketing. “The operating margin has also increased to 24% this quarter, reflecting the improved quality of earnings.”
Despite its ambitious oral insulin failing to live up to its hype, Biocon is confident of taking the project forward in the next few months.
Shaw said the company will identify a global partner in the next six months to finalise the oral insulin studies.
“We need to still conduct a number of studies for IN 105. It is a safe drug,” said Shaw in a conference call.
Last week, data released showed that in a trial in India involving 264 patients, IN 105 had failed to meet the primary goal of reducing HbA1c levels by 0.7%, which is the key objective for insulin.
According to Ranjit Kapadia, vice president, institutional research at HDFC Securities, it will be not very tough for Biocon to get a partner. “Though the results have been okay, and not that great, the oral insulin has a good future.”
Another worry for Biocon remains its German subsidiary AxiCorp, which it acquired in 2008 for 30 million euros.
AxiCorp accounts for about 30-35% of Biocon’s sales.
With the German government imposing a 16% rebate on all pharma companies present in Germany, there would be an impact on the margins and the topline, said Shaw.
Experts said though traditionally margins from AxiCorp have been to the tune of 15-18%, post the 16% rebate, margins could drop to 5-8%.
“Already Germany has a tender system. Now this rebate. So any firm which has a presence in Germany, and not just Biocon will get affected,” Suryadeep Das, analyst with Centrum Broking.
However, according to research analyst Bhavin Shah from Dolat Capital Market, as AxiCorp is a trading company which buys from low-cost places and sells in the EU, margins will usually not be higher than 10%.
Biocon’s alliance with US biggie Pfizer will start showing results only from FY2012, said Shaw.
Analysts say success of the $350 million Pfizer alliance, which was inked in 2010 and implies the US firm marketing biosimilars manufactured by Biocon in international markets, would depend on how soon the products can get approvals in different countries.
“Biosimilars require more time to seek the approval of generic drugs compared. So, to get approval is the key,” said Das.
AstraZeneca desire to implement a new diabetes drugs and new uses for existing blockbuster drugs, Seroquel, Crestor and Nexium as the fight against drugs at the elbow pipe, and lackluster sales.
The Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical manufacturer has suffered setbacks in recent months. E ‘down his Motavizumab a drug used to prevent a serious lung disease that leads to $ 445m (£ 280m) write-downs and the approval of its heart drug Brilinta was further delayed in the United States. Turnover this year is affected by competition from generics after the patent for the breast cancer treatment Arimidex.
AstraZeneca reported a 2% rise in 2010 pre-tax profits to $10.98bn (£6.9bn) today, with sales edging up 1% to $33.3bn. Sales of cholesterol drug Crestor and Seroquel, used to treat bipolar disorder, both topped $5bn for the first time. Sales in emerging markets also exceeded $5bn for the first time, offsetting a 7% drop in the US due to generic competition.
One of AstraZeneca’s promising new medicines is the diabetes drug dapagliflozin, which it is developing with Bristol Myers-Squibb. Dapagliflozin has been submitted for regulatory approval in both the US and Europe, and, barring any problems, could be on the market next year.
Zinforo, an antibiotic for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, is also awaiting regulatory approval. Its sales potential is smaller as antibiotics are usually used as a last resort, but it taps into a growing need to tackle antibiotic resistance to bacteria.
David Brennan, chief executive, launched a major overhaul of AstraZeneca’s research and development arm last year. The company is closing sites in Southborough and in Lund, Sweden.
For the first time since 2004, the drugs pipeline has been reduced. “Pipelines were getting bigger and bigger … the fact is we didn’t get much out at the other end,” said Martin Mackay, the new head of R&D, who was brought in last July. He said dramatic change had been needed and that he and his team had reviewed every single program me. Some 34 projects were discontinued.
Verdult Peter Morgan Stanley said: “Although AstraZeneca is facing challenging revenue outlook, we believe earnings and cash flow will exceed the expectations of operational excellence.”
Others were more skeptical. “The key issue is the fact that AstraZeneca has the least number of sustainable businesses in our universe of coverage, and only the image, where we expect a significant drop in sales in 2020 than today,” said Dominic Valder Evolution Securities.
The company has tried to please investors, double its share buyback program to $ 4 billion to U.S. $ 2.1 billion last year.